Today we are going to learn you some UNIX commands. To get started you need to start the Virtual Catmandu application (hints: see our day 1 tutorial). When you see the Catmandu desktop you need to start the “UNIX prompt” terminal window (hints: see our day 2 tutorial). As a result you should see this on your screen:
The screen above is called the “UNIX prompt” or the “command line” and we will use it to execute UNIX commands. All Catmandu commands were written for this “command line” because it provides the powers of UNIX coupled with the Perl programming language.
Yesterday we saw the date command. Try it again: type ‘date’ in this window and press ‘enter’:
Wed Dec 3 07:34:45 UTC 2014
You will see the current date appearing in this window. With the w command you can see who is logged into the system. Type ‘w’ and press ‘enter’:
10:37:11 up 1:04, 2 users, load average: 0.08, 0.02, 0.01
USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT
catmandu tty1 :0 09:33 1:04m 10.13s 0.37s pam: gdm-autolo
catmandu pts/0 :0.0 10:25 0.00s 0.12s 0.11s w
You see from this output that there is named ‘catmandu’ working in your Virtual Catmandu. That is you!
UNIX provides thousands and thousands of commands you can excute this way. For every imaginable task there exists a command. In the coming days we will use the UNIX prompt to execute Catmandu commands to process library data. Before we can do this, we need to give you a little more context how these UNIX commands work.
First, the commands date and w above are simple commands that don’t required any other input than typing their name. You execute these command by hitting the return button at the end of the name. Some commands need one or more arguments. For instance the echo command is used to print text on a screen. When you type ‘echo’ and hit return, then it prints a blank line
(by the way, the $-sign you see above isn’t part of the command but an indication where the UNIX prompt is so that I don’t have to upload a screenshot for every example).
When you type “echo 123” the command will print ‘123’ as output.
$ echo 123
When you type “echo 123 abc def” the command will print “123 abc def” as output.
$ echo 123 abc def
123 abc def
These “123”, “abc”, “def” are called the arguments of the command. In the example above we ran the echo command with 3 arguments. All the arguments in our examples are words. You can also have use sentence as arguments, but then you need to put the sentence in double quotes:
$ echo "Hello, my name is Catmandu" 123 abc def
Hello, my name is Catmandu 123 abc def
In the example above, the echo command had 4 arguments: 1 sentence and 3 words.
Some commands accept also options. With options you can change the behaviour of commands. Some command have no options, some have many options. With Catmandu you will encounter commands that love to provide you a lot of options. For now lets keep things simple. The UNIX cal command can be used to output a calendar for the current month.
$ cal December 2014 Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 $
When you provide a month and a year you can select which month you would like to see the calendar. E.g. for May (month 5) of 2014
$ cal 5 2014 May 2014 Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 $
The cal command also accepts a year with the -y option. E.g. the calendar for the year 1755 is:
$ cal -y 1755
To find out more about a specific command, call the man command. A documentation will show up where you can browse with arrow keys and quit with hitting the key ‘q‘:
$ man cal
That was enough for today. Tomorrow we will show you how to work with files and do a bit of text analysis.
Continue to Day 4: grep, less and wc >>